Biometric recognition refers to the automated recognition of individuals based on their biological and behavioral traits such as fingerprint, face, iris, and voice. The first scientific paper on automated fingerprint matching was published by Trauring (1963). Since then, progress in representation and recognition approaches has enabled biometric systems to accurately recognize individuals in real-time in applications ranging from unlocking personal smartphones to large-scale national ID and law enforcement systems. Despite this progress, a number of challenges and lack of understanding continue to inhibit the full potential of biometrics. In this talk I would like to share with you some of these challenges, requirements, opportunities for basic and applied research, and some ongoing projects in my laboratory.