The Covid-19 pandemic is shadowing other health issues, and it is timely to look again to other serious health problems, considering the improvement allowed by adopting Covid vaccination. Worldwide, cancer is the second leading cause of death, accounting in 2018 for an estimated 9.6 million deaths, or one in six deaths. Worst is the situation in Italy and Japan, where cancer is the cause of about 28% of annual deaths. In Japan, cancer is the first cause of mortality, even in 2020. Cancer is a large group of diseases with a variety of multiple mechanisms, largely unknown yet. The conventional chemotherapy treatments are in many cases not, or only temporarily, effective, and burdensome for the patients, urgently requiring the development of alternative cancer therapies. Nonetheless, enormous advancements are recently made to tackle cancer therapy from different angles, owing to the dramatically increased biological understanding of tumour development, as acknowledged by the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2018 (Prof. Tasuku Honjo, among the speakers of the webinar) “for the discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation”. Japan and Italy are leaders in the field, and aim of this event, held under the framework of the Italian Research Day in Japan 2021 and of the Memorandum of Cooperation in the Field of Health and Medical Sciences between the Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and Italy’s Ministry of Health, is to showcase the research excellence in both countries on investigating alternative cancer therapies.