In its most basic form, instrumented indentation involves pressing an indenter of known geometry into a test surface while continuously monitoring force and displacement. In this session, we review the test and analysis commonly known as the “Oliver-Pharr” method for measuring hardness and Young’s modulus. The continuous measurement of force and displacement affords two important advantages over traditional hardness testing. First, the contact area can be analytically inferred and does not have to be optically measured. Second, the displacements measured during unloading manifest elastic recovery, and thus are a means for deriving Young’s modulus by means of elastic contact models.