The role of a zoological veterinarian is complex and ever evolving. This role started with the occasional, sporadic consulting role, where veterinarians were called into the zoo only when an animal’s condition had deteriorated to a critical point. With limited involvement in the case, and little knowledge of zoological medicine, the consulting veterinarian’s role was often limited to emergency medicine and subsequent necropsy to document the cause of death. With time, the value of a dedicated part-time or full-time zoo veterinarian became apparent. This allowed the gradual progression of the veterinarian’s role into an integrated team that focused on prevention of diseases and improvement of animal welfare. This role also fostered an expanding knowledge base and the practical application of zoological medicine. Experienced veterinarians started sharing knowledge that led to the specialization of zoological medicine within the broader umbrella of veterinary medicine. Currently there is a trend to bring high tech and very advanced clinical care to zoological collections. This approach is similar to human hospital care and specialized veterinary medical hospitals. To meet this trend, the current zoo veterinarian is often a residency-trained and board-certified specialist eager to apply increasingly sophisticated medical techniques. These changing roles and the subsequent inherent conflicts have been a long-term topic of interest for me. In this webinar I hope to start an open discussion of the appropriate role and responsibilities of the veterinarian in today’s zoological collection.