Zoom Logo

WWW: Astrovirology - Shared screen with speaker view
Ismael
35:04
Hi everyone!
Kaelber
35:23
Check out this multicomponent animal virus if haven’t seen it yet: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1931312816303109
pboston
40:08
Greetings everyone, glad to see you back or hello afresh to those who are joining us for the first time. Feel free to add questions and comments in the chat line, as they will be saved.
Sheila
44:57
I would like to register to follow up in the follow up of the workshop :)
kstedman
49:27
Great image for different sizes of virions!
Kaelber
53:08
I think Ken is the only one here that has done virus taxidermy (using silica)
steffanie strathdee
53:18
LOL
Arvind Varsani
55:16
noooooooo big shot scientists we are all equal.
kstedman
55:59
some of us are more scatter shot scientists
Sheila
56:26
I must confess this slide got me to agree with the first taxonomy description :S
Arvind Varsani
57:34
yay - Anatarctica
Sead Sabanadzovic
57:42
Arvind’s place…
kstedman
57:50
no penguins
Arvind Varsani
57:52
My Austral summer playground
trubl1
57:58
It is all about Lake Vida...
Ismael
59:18
we call them cryptoendolithics!
Arvind Varsani
59:49
Eveline the "fixer"
Sead Sabanadzovic
01:00:48
:)
Sheila
01:04:18
I love those grey unknown viruses
steffanie strathdee
01:04:44
Has this been done for RNA viruses too?
steffanie strathdee
01:06:05
Can a molecular clock be added to this , to map the evolution of these viruses and see which ones evolved first?
Arvind Varsani
01:06:30
@Steffanie has be done for RNA viruses
steffanie strathdee
01:06:53
so that's yes for RNA viruses?
kstedman
01:07:05
https://mbio.asm.org/content/9/6/e02329-18
steffanie strathdee
01:08:05
thx!
Sheila
01:08:48
Question: Do we do taxonomy on contigs? can we get different taxonomies for 2 contigs from the same phage?
Madhan
01:08:55
can such a taxonomic tree be used to look at the core components of a hypothetical Viral Common Ancestor (VCA) similar to the LUCA?
Carlos
01:08:58
Evelien, what are your thoughts on these fragmented genomes (contigs) that we recover from viromes? How does this affect classification?
Esra Özaltın
01:10:11
I was wondering have you ever realized or detected any the strongest virus during your work? more adaptable virus species? Thank you...
Siobain Duffy
01:13:05
I would argue against the need for a VCA, when different shared proteins among viruses may have coalescents at very different times.
Arvind Varsani
01:13:34
Multiple origins of viral CPs https://www.pnas.org/content/114/12/E2401.short
Kaelber
01:13:55
those trees are incorrect
Simon Roux
01:14:18
all trees are incorrect :-)
Siobain Duffy
01:14:29
but some trees are useful??
Simon Roux
01:14:38
exactly !
John Yin
01:14:42
All viruses have to find a way to make protein (from positive-sense RNA genomes or mRNA). Has anyone tried to do taxonomy based on codon usage —coming from the angle of their host(s)?
trubl1
01:15:01
Simon is a lumberjack
Sheila
01:15:08
XD
Carlos
01:15:13
Thanks!
Siobain Duffy
01:15:29
I think the fit of viruses to their hosts by CUB is highly overrated. Of course this is based on my experience in ssDNA viruses that have persistent substitution biases that affect their CUB
Siobain Duffy
01:16:19
There’s good evidence that viruses that mimic host CU more were selected, not a lot of data that viruses get to GREAT CUB matches to hosts
Simon Roux
01:16:21
Agreed with Siobain: on paper it is a nice idea to leverage adaptation of viruses to hosts translation machinery, in practice codon usage does not have nearly enough signal to extract meaningful evolutionary relationships
Siobain Duffy
01:16:49
yes Simon — also, talk about saturation! 3rd postions...
Sheila
01:17:03
Yes, thank you
Niki Thomas
01:18:42
How do we know that there are multiple lineages?
John Yin
01:19:05
Thanks to the experts on CUB!
Simon Roux
01:19:10
Most would argue that the multiple lineages are associated with the multiple types of capsid (i.e. protein folds)
Simon Roux
01:19:44
see e.g. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-biochem-060910-095130
Simon Roux
01:19:56
(Trying to channel my inner Mart Krupovic since I believe he unforunately could not join)
Niki Thomas
01:20:19
Papers on that??
Niki Thomas
01:20:58
I agree with Kaelber
steffanie strathdee
01:21:06
Fantastic discussion...thx all
Nadim Ajami
01:21:16
It’s Jason’s next grant… maybe the reviewer is in here :)
steffanie strathdee
01:21:21
LOL
Madhan
01:21:27
lol
Arvind Varsani
01:22:12
Using network analysis - The Double-Stranded DNA Virosphere as a Modular Hierarchical Network of Gene Sharing - https://mbio.asm.org/content/mbio/7/4/e00978-16.full.pdf
Esra Özaltın
01:22:31
Thanks for all answers! so productive to being here
Arvind Varsani
01:22:57
Thanks Evelien -
Ismael
01:23:07
Thank you Evelien
evelien
01:23:37
Pleasure, thanks for the nice discussion!
Anuradha Ravi
01:24:01
Great talk!
Madhan
01:24:03
From a non-virologist: are there structural similarities between various virus types that could be used for classification?
trubl1
01:24:21
RNA and DNA could have originated simultaneously, so RNA and DNA viruses could do the same... This paper just out: https://astrobiology.nasa.gov/news/lifes-origins-in-a-mixed-up-world/
kstedman
01:25:24
I will talk briefly about structural conservation
Madhan
01:26:37
thank you
Aare Abroi
01:40:17
Similar ideas as Nigel is presenting was published also before: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21633962 and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26296474 . However, from different point of view.
Sheila
01:40:55
Will there be a link to watch the workshop on daytime? I am having trouble staying awake :(
trubl1
01:41:31
All talks are recorded and will be posted.
Sheila
01:41:49
great
Ariel
01:42:05
thank god for that. I keep popping in and out between classes
Sheila
01:46:48
I don't see clearly the benefit for the phages, it means that they will have to acquire the same genes again and again
Arvind Varsani
01:47:33
great talk Nigel.
Sheila
01:48:47
In my experience with photosynthesis genes it seems to me maybe two or three times for different genes (PSI genes)
Sheila
01:48:56
(sorry, I don't have a microphone)
Claudio
01:48:57
Could phage-mediated HGT also play a role in major transitions of animal complexity, e.g. origin of multicellularity itself or nervous system Evolution?
Madhan
01:49:00
is it only the cyanobacteria that show these dynamics vis a vis phage association or is it the entire marine biogeochemical system that shows such associations?
Simon Roux
01:49:01
At what scale would these multiple transfers happen? Because my recollection of photosystem trees is that there are large clades of phage-only vs host-only genes
Rijul Kochhar
01:49:02
Q: how does Nigel’s hypothesis fit into his question for Evelien regarding the bacterial/viral tree of life?
Carlos
01:49:30
Thanks Nigel! Is there any evidence for intermixing psbA phylogenies in other cyanobacterial lineages?
evelien
01:50:15
Thanks, Nigel for the talk. I'm signing out for the night. Enjoy the rest of the session everyone!
Sheila
01:50:51
Replying to Simon: I always get different clades for phages and hosts AMGs
kstedman
01:51:22
Thanks Evelien!
Sead Sabanadzovic
01:51:49
Thanks Evelien!
Carlos
01:52:21
Agree with Sheila, this also happens in freshwater environments, the clades are clearly different. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/1758-2229.12780
Sheila
01:53:43
I liked that paper Carlos
Carlos
01:53:58
:)
Madhan
01:54:26
so cyanobacteria in the marine system(s) outsource genes to viruses for mutational supply while viruses outsource the mutated genes back to the bacteria for them to undergo natural selection for fitness?
Sheila
01:55:15
It happens, but I don't think it is as common as Nigel suggests
kstedman
01:55:26
Thanks for sharing all of these papers.
Madhan
01:55:39
yet its a fascinating model given the supporting evidence
kstedman
01:55:42
Bear with us.
Sheila
01:55:45
or maybe the selection is too strong and we don't see the failed ones
Madhan
01:56:28
there are insertion elements mediated by phages in E.coli for example which increase mutational rates in specific regions
Arvind Varsani
01:56:51
@Marco - Cntrl+L for full screen of pdf
Nigel Goldenfeld
01:57:01
Hi - in answer to Madhan's question. I do not claim that this is common. All I know is that it happens in the cyanobacteria system. And when I have given this talk, other specialists in other environments have thought it might be relevant their too. But I do not know of any documentation of this. So I agree with Sheila, but I want to make it clear that I am not saying it is a pervasive phenomenon
kstedman
01:57:01
Nigel, did you modify viral mutation rates in your models?
Nigel Goldenfeld
01:57:37
Yes
kstedman
01:57:59
what differences did it make?
Nigel Goldenfeld
01:58:12
The main thing is that it should be greater than bacterial mutation rate for this effect to work. The effect is robust to parameter values
kstedman
01:58:18
Thanks.
Nigel Goldenfeld
01:58:31
We are writing up the paper
Madhan
01:58:55
thank you
kstedman
01:58:56
Looking forward to it!
Sheila
01:59:07
we'll wait patiently for the paper :)
Ariel
01:59:41
I'll wait excitedly!!!
Nigel Goldenfeld
02:00:00
You can read an early version of it in the thesis of Hong-Shih http://guava.physics.uiuc.edu/people/Theses/Shih_PhD_thesis_2017.pdf
Madhan
02:00:06
it is common in E. coli and since its common in cyanobacteria, it is entirely possible that such phenomena is widespread in nature open ecosystems
Arvind Varsani
02:07:28
IMG/VR - https://img.jgi.doe.gov/cgi-bin/vr/main.cgi
Arvind Varsani
02:08:50
Minimum Information about an Uncultivated Virus Genome (MIUViG) - https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt.4306
Sheila
02:09:50
I do it manually XD
trubl1
02:10:12
Can't do bioinformatics? No problem go to CyVerse and use their apps https://www.cyverse.org/
Arvind Varsani
02:10:27
ivirus - https://www.nature.com/articles/ismej201689
felipebenites
02:11:01
what about viral genomes retrieved from single amplified genomes? They should be "treated" the same way as MAGs?
Arvind Varsani
02:11:32
@Felipebenites - yes they can be
trubl1
02:11:45
Still nervous? There are step-by-step protocols for each tool here: http://www.hurwitzlab.org/verve-net/ and here: https://www.protocols.io/groups/sullivan-lab
felipebenites
02:13:47
Thanks prof. Varsani
trubl1
02:15:13
Here is the main [easy to use] tool to pull viral sequences from metagenomics datasets called VirSorter: https://peerj.com/articles/985/
Nadim Ajami
02:17:04
Mine is not easy-to-use (yet) but happy to help anyone with a dataset… https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-05658-8
trubl1
02:17:43
Nice! thanks
Nadim Ajami
02:17:55
Maximal viral information recovery from sequence data using VirMAP - https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-05658-8
Carlos
02:24:10
Does it rely on a database?
Nadim Ajami
02:28:48
It’s not reference guided assembly but it provides taxonomic classification based on a reference database, which by the way, can be replaced or updated as needed
Carlos
02:31:10
Nice! I will take a look at it and shoot you an email if I run into problems! Thanks!
Nadim Ajami
02:31:41
nadimajami@gmail.com
Arvind Varsani
02:33:59
Thanks Simon
Kristopher Kieft
02:34:05
Thanks
Michael Shamash
02:34:50
Hi Simon. I’m wondering what your thoughts are on viral tagging as a method for resolving host-phage relationships in complex communities.
Michael Shamash
02:35:00
Thank you for the talk!
Sheila
02:35:39
Thank you Simon! that was great
Simon Roux
02:36:08
@felipebenites: Viruses from SAGs can be treated very similary to MAGs
Simon Roux
02:36:55
@felipebenites: the good news is that you have a better sense of the host :-)
felipebenites
02:37:31
Thanks Simon! Indeed, they should be at least around the cell when sorted out!
Simon Roux
02:39:01
@Michael: I like viral tagging, especially the "version 2" (almost) proposed by the lab of Phil Hugenholtz. There are a few caveates, mainly that it is based on phage attachment, not "real" infection, i.e. each phage will likely attach to more bacteria than it can actually successfully replicate in.
Simon Roux
02:39:11
*caveats
Simon Roux
02:39:58
@Michael: I also wish that a virus-host linking method would allow you to target specific viruses of interest (which viral tagging doesn't, unless you have the virus in culture), but that's not there yet (we have a few ideas, and a few promising pilot experiments, but ...)
Nadim Ajami
02:41:31
@simon thoughts on cross-linking approach to resolve host-phage tropism
Nadim Ajami
02:42:11
In complex communities/samples that is
Michael Shamash
02:42:13
Right, very interesting topics indeed. To your second point, wouldn’t some sort of FISH be a possible solution, as long as you know the genome sequence? Thank you!
trubl1
02:43:03
BONCAT for viruses: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1462-2920.13996
trubl1
02:43:40
biorthogonal non‐canonical amino acid tagging
Nigel Goldenfeld
02:43:44
It's late here in UK, so I'm afraid that I am going to have to say goodbye. Very interesting talks - I learned a lot. Thank you!
trubl1
02:43:59
Thank you Nigel!
kstedman
02:44:12
Thank you Nigel!
Simon Roux
02:44:17
@nadim: in our hands: not working. More generally, I think there are (major) issues for applying cross-linking approaches to actual environmental samples, especially regarding how to make all cells "permeable" while not lysing them (and avoid releasing free DNA in the sample). Very few labs seem to be able to do that, and in a very limited range of samples. So this could become a great technique, but it needs serious improvements before it can be broadly applied (imho)
Simon Roux
02:45:15
@Michael: Yeah, FISH could definitely be an option, but far from straightforward ! (for anyone who would like to try FISH with phages, this is where you should start: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23489642)
Nadim Ajami
02:45:25
@simon - thanks, similar experience on my end
Simon Roux
02:48:53
@nadim: good to know that this is not just us unable to make it work :-)
pboston
02:49:20
The ISS is the International Space Station for those not familiar with NASA acronyms!
kstedman
02:50:16
LOL (TRL??)
pboston
02:50:35
Technology Readiness Level
kstedman
02:50:40
Took me years to figure out what TRL stood for.
pboston
02:51:14
hahaha, well if only you were an engineer, it would be part of your own DNA
kstedman
02:51:36
What is this “DNA” you speak of?
trubl1
02:51:45
haha
pboston
02:51:59
Dreadful Nonsense Acronym
Laura G
02:54:54
:o
Arvind Varsani
02:57:43
Thanks Kathryn
Laura G
02:58:02
thank you! :D
Laura G
02:59:21
omg
Ismael
02:59:41
How close are we to try this nanopore techniques in earth analogs???
Nadim Ajami
02:59:51
Long read = high error rate?
steffanie strathdee
03:00:28
hoping this presentation was recorded so I can see what i missed?
trubl1
03:00:31
True, but see: https://peerj.com/articles/6800/
kstedman
03:00:42
Getting better error rate wise
trubl1
03:00:46
Also we can use short-read with long-read to overcome error
Nadim Ajami
03:01:38
@trubl1 only for scaffolding, right?
felipebenites
03:01:46
I wonder about the min. quantity of the target sample, to be able to detect the molecules; lets say, in martian soil, or desert soil, if using MDA i.e should do as well, or in solid state you dont need to
Nadim Ajami
03:04:39
I need that sample processor for our day-to-day op right here on earth :)
felipebenites
03:05:46
Interesting!! thank you! Indeed diff. environmnts (high salt, low salt)= different challenges; but being able to detect single molecule its awesome
Arvind Varsani
03:05:52
@Kathryn any of IZON's tech help for detection of 'Astroviruses'- https://izon.com/vaccine-virus-formulation/
Arvind Varsani
03:06:25
@Kathryn - https://izon.com/nanoparticlemeasurement/
felipebenites
03:34:54
the method could be used for snow dwelling viruses, and what about aquatic virus? Also, which kind of treatment you should do, after the isotope taging, before sequecing?
felipebenites
03:34:58
thanks! great talk!
Arvind Varsani
03:35:16
I have a question
pboston
03:35:53
Arvind, are you typing the question? Or will you speak orally?
Arvind Varsani
03:35:59
oral
Rijul Kochhar
03:36:12
Q: could you help perform a thought experiment as to how SIPs might work in Astrobiology?
felipebenites
03:38:51
Thanks Gary! (my internet went down in the last half, about the treatment, but thanks anyway, the method looks quite interesting;
cconley
03:39:06
That’s pretty much the Viking Labelled release exit…
R.Kochhar
03:39:13
Thanks!
cconley
03:39:29
experiment — the typo-creation program is lovely, here...
Laura G
03:39:53
Do you know if it's any record of a cave virus? could you look for viruses in this type of enviroments?
pboston
03:39:54
the good old Labelled Release Exit, we know it well!
felipebenites
03:41:09
and what about the hidden diversity of soil viruses? I read somwhere that they should be the "last frontier"; also the putative hosts; do you have idea about cultivation for soil host/virus
felipebenites
03:41:57
Cave virology sounds awesome Laura G!
pboston
03:42:19
There is extremely little work done on viruses in caves. To my knowledge there are less than a handful of papers in the literature on the subject. We do know that there are LOTS of viruses in caves, and that gives us confidence that the microbial communities that we find there are indigenous.
Laura G
03:42:29
It does!
pboston
03:42:37
And yes, much is still to be done. Let me know if anyone wants cave samples.
cconley
03:43:31
The biggest question for metabolism-detection is how fast is the metabolism going — if it’s too slow, it doesn’t matter that you’ve guessed the correct compounds to feed it…
felipebenites
03:43:52
or mammal associated viruses, like cave bats
jrummel
03:44:15
Numerically, one could expect to detect viruses before “live” organisms
trubl1
03:44:54
Agreed. We would also sample soil before any liquid.
R.Kochhar
03:45:21
could you please repeat the cave virus paper that Penny jus mentioned?
jrummel
03:45:24
Find me some liquid and we can have other instruments on the mission, as well!
Laura G
03:45:27
wow, thank you! <3
felipebenites
03:46:23
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260052788_The_Transport_of_Nonindigenous_Microorganisms_Into_Caves_by_Human_Visitation_A_Case_Study_at_Carlsbad_Caverns_National_Park
felipebenites
03:46:26
this one?
Laura G
03:46:29
I'm actually begining with some cave microbiology research in México
Laura G
03:46:51
at leat trying :(
Laura G
03:46:57
least*
Laura G
03:47:15
Thank you, Penny :)
R.Kochhar
03:47:27
Tx, Felipe!
Laura G
03:48:00
yes! haha
trubl1
03:49:01
again subsurface viruses: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-018-0312-6?WT.feed_name=subjects_bacteriophages
trubl1
03:49:31
more here: https://www.nature.com/articles/nmicrobiol2016146
felipebenites
03:51:36
thanks trubl1!
Eduardo Rodríguez-Román
03:52:12
'a virus is a virus' Lwoff, 1957. 😁
pboston
03:52:39
a virus by any other name would infect as sweet
steffanie strathdee
03:53:12
Or i think it was Gunther Stent who said viruses were 'on the border line of life"
felipebenites
03:53:16
Forterre used this concept (not sure if he invented) of capsid encoding organisms, and ribosomes enconding organisms; the ancient billion war
Eduardo Rodríguez-Román
03:55:41
I think that the concept of virocell puts viruses in a new perspective when we define life.
trubl1
03:57:02
Virocell: https://www.nature.com/articles/ismej2012110
felipebenites
03:57:58
Indeed Eduardo, really enjoy this concept of virocell: it seems the "infection" process as a dynamic metabolic entity
trubl1
03:57:58
Metabolic pathways have different isotope fractionations if the host is infected with a virus
steffanie strathdee
03:59:13
No one loves phage more than me and my husband Tom!
trubl1
03:59:30
Tom has a debt
steffanie strathdee
03:59:42
LOL...indeed.
cconley
04:00:54
Has anyone looked for evidence of viruses in, say, chalk or limestone?
Laura G
04:01:39
fossil virus?
trubl1
04:01:42
How about viral roles in organomineralization? https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms5298
cconley
04:01:45
Fossil evidence, that is.
pboston
04:02:31
I don’t know about chalk, but the little amount of work done involve limestone surfaces in a cave.
felipebenites
04:03:00
also, this could be one of the "good" viruses; a virophage that protects the host against infection of Giant viruses: https://www.nature.com/articles/nature20593
Laura G
04:03:04
awesome!
trubl1
04:03:08
I do want to say that viruses are key for transportating carbon from the ocean surface to the deep ocean, thus storing carbon. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature16942
pboston
04:03:16
Ah, well fossil….I have some very suspicious looking shapes on living organisms, and see some similarities in tiny doodads attached to some of the fossilized microbes that we have identified in SEM.
Simon Roux
04:04:15
Re: virophages: As Joshua Weitz says "The virus of my virus is my friend"
pboston
04:04:42
hehehe
felipebenites
04:05:12
hehe indeed!
Laura G
04:05:22
what is a "doodads" ?
trubl1
04:05:31
This is the paper by Mya Breitbart that made me want to study viruses: https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-marine-120709-142805?rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed&url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&journalCode=marine
trubl1
04:05:52
AND the new updated version: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-018-0166-y
pboston
04:06:07
Doodad = slang term for fancy bits of something
felipebenites
04:06:08
classic
Ariel
04:06:16
For me, it was a random interview Curtis Suttle did on YouTube after a conference
Laura G
04:08:07
doodad, hhahaha, ok, got it
Nadim Ajami
04:09:26
For me, my virology teacher in undergrad told me she had never seen a virus under a microscope (Colombia, 1998), so I told her I would become a virologist and send her a pic of one …and I did.
felipebenites
04:09:50
awesome Nadim!
Laura G
04:10:33
:o
Carlos
04:10:43
Awesome!
Ariel
04:11:03
that's awesome!
Laura G
04:11:16
wooow
felipebenites
04:11:34
so cool!
Laura G
04:12:46
what!
steffanie strathdee
04:12:51
I just took a copy of my book, The Perfect Predator, to my virology professor at U of Toronto who taught me about phage in 1986. If I didnt hear about them then, i never would have pursued phage therapy to save my husband's life from his superbug. Since then, I have a renewed love for virology!
Laura G
04:14:17
Sorry, but did you tell the age of the zombie virus?
Madhan
04:14:56
Thanks for the talk
steffanie strathdee
04:15:05
Great session!
trubl1
04:15:22
viruses love iron: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2016.00082/full
Ismael
04:15:36
How can we approach to study AMG isotope fractionation in the geological record?
Madhan
04:15:42
Can you elaborate a bit more about the ancient folds on viral proteins? do they resemble SH3 or OB folds?
Laura G
04:16:57
yeeesss
steffanie strathdee
04:18:30
I read somewhere that phage were taken to space....
trubl1
04:19:11
well yes in every astronaut that has gone to space...hehe
R.Kochhar
04:19:12
Ken: any examples of the Russian papers on viruses in their space programs you just mentioned?
steffanie strathdee
04:19:18
LOL
Madhan
04:19:32
there is a paper in npj Microgravity on latent viral activation in astronauts
cconley
04:20:18
Colleet viruses from places that normally spend most of the time desiccated, to have a better chance of long-term preservation…
Madhan
04:20:39
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41526-017-0015-y
trubl1
04:20:40
The so far farthest reaches of the double jelly roll capsid protein fold: https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12985-018-1097-1
steffanie strathdee
04:20:57
Yes, that might be the one that discusses activation of latent herpesviruses in astronauts that is associated with shingles. Whether it is microgravity, radiation or stress of being in space is still an open question.
trubl1
04:21:18
Multiple origins of viral capsid proteins from cellular ancestors: https://www.pnas.org/content/114/12/E2401
cconley
04:21:42
Human immune function in space is impaired…
Ismael
04:21:47
In case you didn't see my question, how about isotope fractionation by AMGs in the geological record? How to study them?
Nadim Ajami
04:22:14
Ken - do you know what mineralization did to viral capsids to prevent infectivity?
Arvind Varsani
04:22:24
yes
Arvind Varsani
04:22:38
am muted by host
Madhan
04:23:14
“Latent virus reactivation in astronauts on the international space station”
Nadim Ajami
04:24:29
yeah.. that was going to be my next question!
Nadim Ajami
04:24:36
Vaccine preservation!
Ismael
04:26:48
Thank you for your answer!
Laura G
04:28:24
I'm leaving! thank you for this amazing afternoon
pboston
04:28:40
Thanks for joining us Laura.
Laura G
04:29:29
I'm your fan, Penny. This work shops are incredible :)
Esra Özaltın
04:30:42
It is 3 am here! I am so happy to attend this incredible webinar! It was so productive. Thank you so much...
R.Kochhar
04:30:47
Thank you so much, organisers. This was incredibly illuminating, and without walls, indeed! Much appreciated :D
Arvind Varsani
04:30:50
thanks to all the organisers for an awesome virtual meeting
Nadim Ajami
04:31:01
this has been an amazing series… muchas gracias
Ismael
04:31:33
Looking forward for more workshops like this! Thank you all!
pboston
04:31:46
Thanks Ismael
Ariel
04:31:51
this was so awesome to watch as an undergrad. thanks so much!!
Nadim Ajami
04:31:52
IT team - congrats! flawless execution
Eduardo Rodríguez-Román
04:31:56
I loved these two days. Thanks to the organizers.
felipebenites
04:32:01
thank you all, really great discussions!
cconley
04:32:33
I really like the two-day different-time format — helps a lot for participation by many people. Thank you!
Simon Roux
04:34:37
Thanks everyone !
Lisa Bono
04:34:50
Thanks!!
Eduardo Rodríguez-Román
04:34:54
Viruses rock! Thanks all.